Ed Friedlander, M.D., Pathologist

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Welcome to Ed's Pathology Notes, placed here originally for the convenience of medical students at my school. You need to check the accuracy of any information, from any source, against other credible sources. I cannot diagnose or treat over the web, I cannot comment on the health care you have already received, and these notes cannot substitute for your own doctor's care. I am good at helping people find resources and answers. If you need me, send me an E-mail at scalpel_blade@yahoo.com Your confidentiality is completely respected. No texting or chat messages, please. Ordinary e-mails are welcome.

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Freely have you received, give freely With one of four large boxes of "Pathguy" replies.

I'm still doing my best to answer everybody. Sometimes I get backlogged, sometimes my E-mail crashes, and sometimes my literature search software crashes. If you've not heard from me in a week, post me again. I send my most challenging questions to the medical student pathology interest group, minus the name, but with your E-mail where you can receive a reply.

Numbers in {curly braces} are from the magnificent Slice of Life videodisk. No medical student should be without access to this wonderful resource.

I am presently adding clickable links to images in these notes. Let me know about good online sources in addition to these:

Freely have you received, freely give. -- Matthew 10:8. My site receives an enormous amount of traffic, and I'm still handling dozens of requests for information weekly, all as a public service.

Pathology's modern founder, Rudolf Virchow M.D., left a legacy of realism and social conscience for the discipline. I am a mainstream Christian, a man of science, and a proponent of common sense and common kindness. I am an outspoken enemy of all the make-believe and bunk that interfere with peoples' health, reasonable freedom, and happiness. I talk and write straight, and without apology.

Throughout these notes, I am speaking only for myself, and not for any employer, organization, or associate.

Special thanks to my friend and colleague, Charles Wheeler M.D., pathologist and former Kansas City mayor. Thanks also to the real Patch Adams M.D., who wrote me encouragement when we were both beginning our unusual medical careers.

If you're a private individual who's enjoyed this site, and want to say, "Thank you, Ed!", then what I'd like best is a contribution to the Episcopalian home for abandoned, neglected, and abused kids in Nevada:

I've spent time there and they are good. Write "Thanks Ed" on your check.

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Especially if you're looking for information on a disease with a name that you know, here are a couple of great places for you to go right now and use Medline, which will allow you to find every relevant current scientific publication. You owe it to yourself to learn to use this invaluable internet resource. Not only will you find some information immediately, but you'll have references to journal articles that you can obtain by interlibrary loan, plus the names of the world's foremost experts and their institutions.

Alternative (complementary) medicine has made real progress since my generally-unfavorable 1983 review. If you are interested in complementary medicine, then I would urge you to visit my new Alternative Medicine page. If you are looking for something on complementary medicine, please go first to the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians. And for your enjoyment... here are some of my old pathology exams for medical school undergraduates.

I cannot examine every claim that my correspondents share with me. Sometimes the independent thinkers prove to be correct, and paradigms shift as a result. You also know that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. When a discovery proves to square with the observable world, scientists make reputations by confirming it, and corporations are soon making profits from it. When a decades-old claim by a "persecuted genius" finds no acceptance from mainstream science, it probably failed some basic experimental tests designed to eliminate self-deception. If you ask me about something like this, I will simply invite you to do some tests yourself, perhaps as a high-school science project. Who knows? Perhaps it'll be you who makes the next great discovery!

Our world is full of people who have found peace, fulfillment, and friendship by suspending their own reasoning and simply accepting a single authority that seems wise and good. I've learned that they leave the movements when, and only when, they discover they have been maliciously deceived. In the meantime, nothing that I can say or do will convince such people that I am a decent human being. I no longer answer my crank mail.

This site is my hobby, and I do not accept donations, though I appreciate those who have offered to help.

During the eighteen years my site has been online, it's proved to be one of the most popular of all internet sites for undergraduate physician and allied-health education. It is so well-known that I'm not worried about borrowers. I never refuse requests from colleagues for permission to adapt or duplicate it for their own courses... and many do. So, fellow-teachers, help yourselves. Don't sell it for a profit, don't use it for a bad purpose, and at some time in your course, mention me as author and William Carey as my institution. Drop me a note about your successes. And special thanks to everyone who's helped and encouraged me, and especially the people at William Carey for making it still possible, and my teaching assistants over the years.

Whatever you're looking for on the web, I hope you find it, here or elsewhere. Health and friendship!


More of Ed's Notes: Ed's Medical Terminology Page

Perspectives on Disease
Cell Injury and Death
Accumulations and Deposits
What is Cancer?
Cancer: Causes and Effects
Immune Injury
Other Immune
HIV infections
The Anti-Immunization Activists
Infancy and Childhood
Environmental Lung Disease
Violence, Accidents, Poisoning
Red Cells
White Cells
Oral Cavity
GI Tract
Pancreas (including Diabetes)
Adrenal and Thymus
Nervous System
Lab Profiling
Blood Component Therapy
Serum Proteins
Renal Function Tests
Adrenal Testing
Arthritis Labs
Glucose Testing
Liver Testing
Spinal Fluid
Lab Problem
Alternative Medicine (current)
Preventing "F"'s: For Teachers!
Medical Dictionary

Courtesy of CancerWEB

Taiwanese pathology site
Good place to go to practice

Photo Library of Pathology
U. of Tokushima

Iowa Virtual Microscopy
Have fun

Utah cases for path students
Juliana Szakacs MD

Photos, explanations, and quiz
Indiana U.

Brown Digital Pathology
Some nice cases

Normal pituitary

WebPath Photo

Normal pituitary

WebPath Photo

Pituitary gland
Pars intermedia

{14945} anterior (A) and posterior (B) pituitary
{02294} anterior pituitary, histology; curious stain, don't worry about the colors
{14948} posterior pituitary, histology (arrow: Herring body)

Normal anterior pituitary

WebPath Photo

Normal posterior pituitary

WebPath Photo


KCUMB Students
"Big Robbins" -- Endocrine
Lectures follow Textbook





ANTERIOR LOBE ADENOMAS (Am. Fam. Phys. 88: 319, 2013; curious five-tier WHO classification Cancer 78: 502, 1996; tumorigenesis J. Clin. Inv. 112: 1603, 2003)

{15683} pituitary adenoma, gross
{15682} pituitary adenoma with hemorrhage
{49422} pituitary adenoma, gross
{49612} pituitary adenoma, gross
{09214} pituitary adenoma, histology (this was a prolactinoma; you couldn't tell)
{24821} pituitary acidophilic adenoma, Orange G stain (acromegaly)
{09215} pituitary adenoma, histology
{15679} pituitary adenoma, histology
{05026} pituitary adenoma, x-ray
{00344} pituitary adenoma, x-ray

Pituitary adenoma
Pittsburgh Pathology Cases

Pituitary adenoma
Pittsburgh Pathology Cases

Pituitary microadenoma

WebPath Photo

Pituitary adenoma

WebPath Photo

{49419} giant and her sisters
{16101} acromegaly
{25668} acromegaly (which twin has it?)
{49421} acromegaly, hand (compared with normal)

      Excess growth hormone before puberty produces excessively tall stature. In the past, these people typically were crippled by nerve, muscle, and joint problems, acquired acromegalic features as they got older, and died young of complications of their diabetes.

        A giant is defined to be a human over seven feet tall (you may hear 200 cm instead).

Gheorge Muresan
George Muresan

        * Andre "the Giant" Rousimoff, the famous wrestler, had acromegaly; he was 7'4" tall and weighed 520 lb when he died at age 46. Several movie villains have been played by acromegalics. My favorite is Richard Kiel as "Jaws" from "Moonraker". Acromegalic Rondo Hatton (here or here, from the 1940's B-movies, "could have played Frankenstein without make-up". Dalip Singh evidently has gigantism-acromegaly; he remains very physically fit.

        The lab workup of acromegaly is straightforward. Your screening test is a spot blood insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). If this is normal, acromegaly is unlikely. Next, attempt suppression of the hGH levels to <1 microgram/L by administering 75 grams of glucose orally (yuck). If this fails, your patient probably has acromegaly.


{09367} Cushingism
{09368} Cushingism
{09369} Cushingism
{09370} Cushingism
{16110} Cushingism
{16111} Cushingism
{49427} Cushingism
{25669} Cushingism, before and after treatment

Pituitary adenoma
Pittsburgh Illustrated Case



    Failure to produce normal amounts of growth hormone in childhood results in miniature, well-proportioned people. Causes range from "idiopathic" to various genetic syndromes to other causes of hypopituitarism.

      Around 50% of "idiopathic dwarves" are breech or transverse deliveries, and the damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis may occur when their little skulls get crunched: Lancet 338: 480, 1991

      After traumatic brain injury, there is often considerable loss of growth hormone (Arch. Phys. Med. 86: 463, 2005). New studies of professional and elite amateur boxers show that growth hormone and ACTH are often impaired -- watch this one (Ann. Int. Med. 148: 827, 2008.)

CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA ("adamantinoma", "ameloblastoma", both named for tooth enamel)

{15685} craniopharyngioma, gross
{15686} craniopharyngioma, gross
{15687} craniopharyngioma, histology
{15688} craniopharyngioma, histology


KU Collection

Notice the benign squamous pearl
KU Collection


WebPath Photo

DIABETES INSIPIDUS (Am. Fam. Phys. 55: 2146, 1997; Arch. Int. Med. 157: 1293, 1997).



{49423} Froehlich's man, age twenty

    KALLMANN'S SYNDROME is a brain malformation with anosmia (no sense of smell) and Froehlich's. The best-known gene is KAL1, which directs neuronal migration; two other loci are known (update J. Clin. Inv. 120: 3668, 2010).

      * Jazz singer/musician "Little Jimmy Scott", who's delighted audiences for over half a century, has Kallmann's, which gave him his distinctive child-like appearance and voice.

      * An autosomal dominant Kallman's: Nat. Genet. 33: 463, 2003.

Jimmy Scott


{10747} pituitary infarct



{00135} thyroid, normal
{09213} pituitary, normal
{09362} thyroid scan radionucleotide, normal
{11204} adrenal and nerve, normal
{11207} adrenal and nerve, normal
{11210} adrenal and nerve, normal
{11754} thyroid, normal
{11755} thyroid, normal
{11803} thyroid, normal
{12866} sella turcica, normal anatomy
{12903} thyroid gland, normal
{12983} sella turcica, normal
{12986} sella turcica, normal
{12992} sella turcica, normal anatomy
{12995} sella turcica, normal
{12998} sella turcica, normal
{13004} sella turcica, normal
{13007} sella turcica, normal
{13010} sella turcica, normal
{13013} sella turcica, normal
{13016} sella turcica, normal
{13019} sella turcica, normal
{13022} sella turcica, normal
{13025} sella turcica, normal
{13028} sella turcica, norma
{13169} adenoma, pituitary
{14942} hypophysis, normal
{14942} hypophysis, normal
{14943} adenohypophysis (pars distalis), normal
{14943} adenohypophysis (pars distalis), normal
{14944} pituitary (anterior & posterior)
{14945} pituitary (anterior & posterior)
{14946} pituitary trabeculae, normal
{14947} neurohypophysis, normal
{14948} neurohypophysis, normal
{15034} adrenal, normal
{15035} adrenal gland (zones), normal
{15036} adrenal gland (zones), normal
{15037} adrenal gland (cortex), normal
{15038} adrenal gland (cortex), normal
{15039} adrenal gland (cortex), normal
{15040} adrenal gland (cortex), normal
{15041} adrenal gland (cortex, lipid stain)
{15042} adrenal gland (cortex, lipid stain)
{15043} adrenal gland (medulla), normal
{15044} adrenal gland (medulla), normal
{15045} adrenal gland (medulla, chromaffin stain)
{15046} adrenal gland (medulla, chromaffin stain)
{15048} thyroid gland, normal
{15049} thyroid gland, normal
{15050} thyroid inactive, normal
{15051} thyroid gland (follicle cells), normal
{15052} thyroid gland (active follicle cells)
{15053} thyroid gland (inactive follicle cells)
{15054} thyroid gland (parafollicular cells)
{15055} thyroid gland (parafollicular cells)
{15056} parathyroid gland fetal, normal
{15057} parathyroid gland, normal
{15058} parathyroid gland, oxyphil cells
{15059} parathyroid gland, oxyphil cells
{15060} parathyroid gland, oxyphil & chief cells
{15680} adenoma, pituitary with normal tissue
{20695} pituitary gland, both lobes
{20696} pituitary gland, both lobes
{20697} pituitary, pars distalis
{20698} pituitary, pars intermedia
{20699} pituitary, intermedia and * nervosa
{20700} pituitary, pars nervosa
{20701} adrenal gland with layers labeled, #98
{20702} adrenal gland with layers labeled, #98
{20703} adrenal gland with layers labeled, #98
{20704} adrenal gland with layers labeled, #98
{20705} adrenal gland, medulla
{20706} thyroid, normal
{20707} thyroid, normal
{20708} thyroid, normal
{20709} parathyroid, normal
{20711} pineal gland, normal
{20712} pineal gland, normal
{20795} parathyroid
{20796} parathyroid, oxyphil cell
{20797} parathyroid, oxyphil cell
{20970} hypophysis, all three regions
{20971} adenohypophysis, anterior lobe of pit.
{20972} neurohypophysis, posterior lobe pituit.
{20973} pars intermedia, pituitary
{20974} pars intermedia, pituitary
{20975} neurohypophysis, herring body
{20976} adrenal
{20977} adrenal, glomerulosa layer
{20978} adrenal, fasciculata layer
{20979} adrenal, reticularis layer
{20980} adrenal, medulla
{20981} adrenal, fasciculata
{24712} adrenal, normal
{24823} thyroid, normal
{25393} adrenal cortex, normal
{31090} pituitary in sella, normal
{34355} pituitary, normal
{36419} thyroid, normal
{36425} thyroid, normal
{36452} thyroid cytology, normal glandular cells
{36455} thyroid cytology, sheet of normal glandular cells


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