1112      Europe is entering the high middle ages. Feudalism and
          barter are being replaced by towns and a money economy. A
          mobile middle class is appearing.

          Troubadour poets and singers are popularizing new ideas --
          romantic love and chivalry -- and a new form of music, mostly
          in southern France.

          Bernard of Clairvaux founds the Cistercian order, a
          super-strict branch of Benedictine monks. Bernard is a good
          man, but a product of his times -- he calls laughter a "sin",
          promotes the crusades, and makes his order wealthy from the
          monks' slave labor.

          Crusader states are established in the holy land.

1118      One "Basil of Bulgaria" is burned in Constantinople because
          he is a Cathar ("pure one"). This means he believes that God
          creates each human soul, but did not create the evil human
          body or the evil world in which we live. More to the point,
          Basil and his friends hate the Catholic clergy and call them
          greedy frauds.

          During the next several decades, Catharism becomes very
          popular, especially among people who dislike the Roman church
          government. Cathar leaders are all pacifists, vegetarians,
          and celibates. Cathars reject the sacraments and many of the
          doctrines of the Catholic church. All Cathars worship using
          their own languages.

1149      Catharite bishops take control of religious life in much of
          France. Curiously, they support and promote the troubadours.

1163      The Bishop of Rome finally declares Catharism illegal.
          However, it is now a major expression of Christianity (?) in
          Eastern Europe and France.

1167      The Cathars (now also called Albigenses, Bogomils,
          "Bulgars", and dozens of other names) hold a huge general
          convention in southern France, in defiance of the Bishop of

1169      Arnold of Brescia, a reform-minded Catholic, is executed in
          Rome for saying the church and its leaders should give away
          all their property. (His followers will be called

1173      Peter Waldo, a rich cloth merchant in southern France,
          embraces gospel poverty and begins preaching to the poor in
          French. He is not a Cathar, but a militant proto-Puritan.
          He has soon translated the Bible into French, and quotes it
          against the wealthy and corrupt clergy. He urges lay people
          to undertake preaching ministries based on the Bible.

          In the following years, Peter's followers call themselves
          "the Poor in Spirit". Everyone else calls them Waldensians.
          The movement is especially popular among French cloth-makers.

1181 John Bernardone (Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone) born in Assisi
     to Peter Bernardone and his French wife, Joan (Pica -- "Magpie").
     The town of Assisi belongs to the Holy Roman Empire. The
     Bernardones make a good living by bringing cloth from southern

1184      The Bishop of Rome declares the Waldensians to be
          "heretics", lumping them with the Arnoldists and the

1187      Moslems recapture Jerusalem from the crusaders.

1195      Joachim of Flores, a former wealthy Cistercian scholar who
          has become a tramp and Bible preacher, founds the order
          called "The Flowers" in Italy. He looks to a new age of
          gospel poverty and purity, and is in and out of trouble with
          church authorities.

1198      Innocent III elected Bishop of Rome (Jan. 8). As a result of
          political intrigues, Assisi is surrendered to the Papacy.

     John Bernardone is now a young libertine who likes to play and
     sing French troubadour love songs. This earns him the nickname
     "Francis" ("Frenchy" -- according to another account, his father
     had always called him Francis.)

1199      Civil war in Assisi. The middle class believe the Bishop of
          Rome will not protect the upper class. A mob of shopkeepers
          (very likely including Francis) routs the nobles, who flee to
          neighboring Perugia (which is strongly pro-Papacy).

1202 War breaks out between Assisi and Perugia. Francis is knocked off
     his horse in the first skirmish. He spends a year in prison in
     Perugia, gets sick, and is ransomed by his father.

          Perugia finally defeats Assisi, and the noblemen are

1203      The Fourth Crusade sacks Christian Constantinople. The
          entire western world is outraged.

1204 Francis, recovered from his illness, sets out for war in Apulia,
     but returns "after a vision at Spoleto". This is the beginning of
     his interest in religion.

     By the end of the year, Francis is trading clothes with beggars,
     hugging and caring for lepers, and has made a pilgrimage to Rome
     (and been mugged there).

1205 Francis begins to have a sense of a special religious vocation
     ("the vision of the speaking crucifix at St. Damian's church") and
     to have problems with his parents. He spends much time meditating
     in a cave, and has some mystical experiences. After other
     "remedies" fail, his father chains him in the cellar. He is
     released a month later by his mother.

1206 Francis robs his family, gives the money to the poor, and is
     hauled by his father before the bishop. Francis declares himself
     a holy hermit, strips naked, and gives his father back all his
     clothes. The bishop makes him a ward of the Church and gives him
     a cloak, and Francis walks out into the snow. He finds temporary
     shelter as a dishwasher for Benedictines (winter). He moves to
     Gubbio to care for the lepers (spring). He returns to Assisi,
     adopts a hermit's habit, and repairs three of Assisi's church
     buildings -- St. Damian's, St. Peter's, and St. Mary of the Angels
     ("Little Portion").

          A bishop and his chaplain (Dominic Guzman) begin persecuting
          Cathars and Waldensians in France. Dominic soon finds that
          living simply, being kind, and preaching the orthodox Gospel
          is most effective.

1208 Francis hears mass at Little Portion on the feast of St. Matthias
     (Feb. 24), and is impressed by the passage from Matthew's gospel
     ("Take no gold, nor silver, nor money in your belt, no bag for
     your journey, not two tunics, no sandals, nor a staff.") Francis
     decides to follow a life of gospel poverty and Bible preaching in
     the streets, and adopts a preacher's habit.

     Francis's preaching is always strictly orthodox. He emphasizes
     repentance, kindness, humility, forgiveness, simplicity,
     gratitude, hard work, and devotion to Jesus.

     Unlike all "heretics", Francis honors the Catholic clergy, always
     accepts their authority, and never mentions their obvious
     shortcomings. They in turn appreciate the support of this
     charismatic Christian personality. Francis uses this influence
     with the clergy to ensure the survival of his preaching ministry.

     Unlike the Cathars, Francis deeply appreciates our world as God's
     glorious creation. He is especially tender toward animals.

     Francis is joined by Bernard and Peter Catani (April 16).
     Brother Giles joins them (April 23). Preaching missions begin to
     nearby cities.

          The Bishop of Rome's legate is murdered in France. In
          retaliation, "crusaders" kill 7000 unresisting Cathars and
          Waldensians. This begins the Inquisition -- Francis will
          avoid all involvement with this throughout his ministry.

1209 Francis and his twelve companions receive approval from the
     Bishop of Rome for their new First Order. This means local
     bishops cannot stop them from begging and preaching, and that
     they are not just another group of anti-property, Bible-quoting

     Francis and his friends are friars ("brothers"), rather than monks
     (from "mono-", meaning "solitary"), because they continually
     travel from place to place, living among the very poor. ("A monk
     lives in a monastery, a friar lives away from a friary.")

1210 Francis and the other friars move into Little Portion.

          Possible beginning of the Franciscan Third Order, for people
          who are married, have dependents, or have a profession.

1211 Francis goes to Dalmatia (Cathar country) as a Bible-quoting

1212 Francis receives some runaway teen-aged girls (St. Clare and her
     companions) as Franciscans at Little Portion, in open defiance of
     canon law (March 18/19, Palm Sunday night). This is the beginning
     of the Second Order (cloistered nuns). The new nuns are smuggled
     into a Benedictine convent, then are cloistered at St. Damian's.

1214 Francis goes to Spain as a missionary.

1215 Francis and Dominic are both in Rome for the Fourth Lateran
     Council. They successfully resist attempts to suppress their
     respective orders.

          Dominic's order receives Papal endorsement, and Dominic
          continues his orthodox preaching ministry and Inquisition in
          southern France. Dominic is a leading voice for sanity
          during the whole affair.

1216      Innocent III dies, and is succeeded by the infirm
          Honorius III.

1217      The Pentecost Chapter of Assisi is attended by hundreds of
          friars (May 5). They launch missions to Germany, the Near
          East, and Africa.

1219 Francis visits Dalmietta, crosses Crusader-Moslem lines, and
     talks with the Sultan, who is favorably impressed.

1220 Francis tours the Holy Land under safe-conduct from the Sultan --
     the only Christian of his generation to visit Jerusalem. He
     returns to Italy, and resigns as head of Franciscan orders. Peter
     Catani replaces him.

          Five Franciscan friars are killed by Moslems in Morocco.
          Contrary to Francis's explicit instructions, they had spoken
          ill of Mohammed.

1221 There are now around 5000 friars. Francis writes a new rule for
     them, which they reject as too strict.

          Peter Catani dies, and Elias of Cortona becomes new vicar for
          the First Order. Elias favors a more "normal" (i.e.,
          Benedictine) model for the Franciscan movement.

          The Third Order rule is approved by Honorious III. It
          includes a historic prohibition against participating in
          feudal wars.

1223 Francis's revision of his 1221 rule is approved (Pentecost), later
     ratified by Honorious III. Francis popularizes the creche and
     carolling at Greccio (Christmas).

1224 Francis receives the stigmata while praying on Mt. Alvernia
     (around Sept. 14 -- traditionally celebrated on Sept. 17).

          First Franciscan mission to England.

1225 Francis becomes nearly blind, probably from trachoma. His eyes
     are cauterized, and his ears pierced, by medical quacks.

     Francis writes most of The Canticle of Brother Sun (May?). Later
     he adds the verse about reconciliation to calm a political dispute
     in Assisi (June?). He intends for his missionaries to sing it on
     the roads, troubadour-style.

1226 Francis composes the last verse of The Canticle of Brother Sun,
     recites Psalm 142, and dies at Little Portion, probably from
     metastatic cancer (night of Oct. 3/4). His body is temporarily
     buried in St. George's church in Assisi.

     Admirers of the newly-dead saint report "miracles worked through
     his intercession".

          Francis's friend Hugo of Ostia becomes Gregory IX, Bishop of

1228 Gregory IX formally canonizes St. Francis.

          Thomas of Celano writes the first biography of Francis.

1230 Francis's body is moved to the "St. Francis's Basilica", in
     Assisi --the beautiful church built at the site of the gallows
     under which Francis asked to be buried. The body is so carefully
     hidden from relic-hunters that for centuries, nobody can find it.

          Infighting among Franciscans has become an unedifying
          spectacle. This continues until the Reformation distracts
          them. Brother Elias, who favors a lax interpretation of
          Franciscan poverty, is singled out for special abuse.

1244      The armies of the Inquisition finally defeat the armies of
          the French "heretics". The Waldensians have survived to our
          own times, but the anti-everything attitudes of the Cathars
          are mostly extinct -- thanks largely to Francis.

1257      John of Fidanza (Bonaventure) effects a truce among
          Franciscans which continues to his death in 1274.

1300      Dante Alighieri visits heaven, hears the story of St. Francis
          told by Thomas Aquinas (a Dominican), hears the story of
          St. Dominic told by Bonaventure (a Franciscan), and
          eventually meets Francis (Easter).

c 1307 Giotto (?) and other artists in Assisi, painting St. Francis
          and his followers, develop a new style which emphasizes
          subtle gestures.

          The "Fraticelli", a Franciscan minority who espouse
          violence, are expressing (in various ways) their disapproval
          of wealthy church leaders.

1322      Franciscans (supported by the Emperor) promote "the doctrine
          of the poverty of Jesus Christ" -- that Jesus owned nothing.
          Their opponents are the Dominicans and the Bishop of Rome
          The Franciscans are really advocating separation of church
          and state.

1525      Matthew Bascio founds the Capuchins, a strict first-order
          subdivision devoted to "saving notorious sinners".
          (Capuchin monkeys are named after these friars, not the
          other way around.)

1536      Henry VIII suppresses the three Franciscan orders in

1610      Franciscans found Santa Fe ("Royal City of the Holy Faith of
          St. Francis of Assisi"), now the capital of New Mexico.

1769      Franciscans found Los Angeles ("House of Our Lady of the
          Angels of Little Portion"), now one of the major cities in

1776      Franciscans found San Francisco ("St. Francis of Assisi
          Mission"), now one of the major cities in California.

1818 Francis's remains are rediscovered by workmen repairing the

c. 1850 "The Prayer of St. Francis" ("Lord, make me an instrument of
          Your peace....") is composed by an anonymous author.

1891      The Society of Divine Compassion, a group of Anglicans
          working in the slums, is founded on a Franciscan model. In
          the following years, other Franciscan groups appear, and
          eventually several merge as the Society of St. Francis.

1894      Paul Sabatier, a liberal Protestant, popularizes Francis in a
          biography that is harshly critical of the Catholic clergy.
          The Bishop of Rome increases its popularity by forbidding
          Roman Catholics to read it.

1923      A biography of Francis by G.K. Chesterton, a convert to
          Roman Catholicism, portrays the saint as a joyful nature-
          mystic who loves each detail of the created world.

1924      Communist leader Nikolai Lenin dies calling on St. Francis.

1931      The Canticle of Brother Sun is chosen as the hymn for the
          World Congress of Religion in London. Representatives of all
          the great world faiths sing it together.

1968      A statue, "St. Francis of the Guns", is create in San
          Francisco from melted handguns turned in following the
          assassination of Robert Kennedy.

1972 Francis's bones are examined by forensic anthropologists. He was
     5'0" tall -- average for his time. A diagnosis of osteomalacia
     (decalcification of bone from poor nutrition) is established.

          John Holland Smith, a non-Christian follower of
          psychoanalyst Karl Jung, writes an unfriendly biography of
          Francis as a neurotic political intriguer.

1979 John Paul II (Bishop of Rome) declares Francis "patron saint of

1980      Umberto Eco's best-selling novel, The Name of the Rose (an
          unflattering portrayal of medieval monasticism) has as it
          hero an enlightened Franciscan friar. The friar solves
          crimes using methods like those of Sherlock Holmes.

1991 Francis remains the most popular Christian of post-apostolic
     times, and the one religious figure who is popular with "post-

     Francis's image appears around the world, from church altarpieces
     (adoring the Christ Child) to cement birdbaths (holding birds).
     The only saints mort often depicted are Mary (the mother of
     Jesus) and Nicholas of Myra (as Santa Claus).

          Well-known First Order Franciscans include St. Anthony of
          Padua, Roger Bacon, William of Ockham ("Ockham's Razor"),
          Duns Scotus, and Francis Rabelais.

          Well-known Third Order Franciscans include Dante, Giotto,
          Michelangelo, King Louis of Francis (St. Louis), Queen
          Elizabeth of Hungary (St. Elizabeth, patron of nurses), Joan
          of Arc, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain,
          Christopher Columbus, St. Thomas More, classic musicians John
          Palestrina, Franz Liszt, and Charles Gounod, scientists
          Andrew Ampere, Michael Faraday, and Louis Pasteur, and
          contemporary musicians John Michael Talbot and Arlo Guthrie.

          There are three million Franciscan bothers and sisters in
          our world. Of these, 98% are Roman Catholic, 1% are
          Anglicans, and 1% are Lutherans.

                           FRANCIS OF ASSISI

INSTRUCTIONS: Write "T" for "True, "F" for "False". Answers at the
bottom of page 2. We will not collect your papers.

____ 1. Francis's real name was John Son-of-Peter Bernardone
           ("Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone").

____ 2. Francis's father was probably well-acquainted with the
           French heretics of his day. These people believed God
           created our spirits, and that the devil created the world
           and the human body.

____ 3. Young Francis spent a year as a prisoner of war.

____ 4. When Francis said he wanted to be a religious hermit, his
           father chained him in the cellar for a month.

____ 5. Francis at first misinterpreted the words of God's call to
           him ("Rebuild My church"). He thought he was supposed to
           restore old church buildings and spent two discouraging
           years doing this.

____ 6. Francis was a priest.

____ 7. Francis's followers re-introduced the custom of Bible
           preaching into public ministry. This was the main basis for
           the movement's effectiveness and popularity.

____ 8. Francis sometimes determined the "will of God" using
           bibliomancy (choosing a Bible passage at random for

____ 9. Francis's scruples prevented him from stepping on two
           straws that lay in the shape of a cross. Ignatius of
           Loyola, founder of the Jesuits, singled this behavior out
           for ridicule.

____ 10. Francis was a vegetarian.

____ 11. Francis had a pet lamb.

____ 12. The townspeople of Gubbio say that the famous "wolf" tamed
           there by Francis was actually a human robber named Lupo.

____ 13. Several of Francis's imitators obviously had anorexia

____ 14. Francis originated the custom of Christmas carolling.

____ 15. Francis popularized the Christmas creche. For the
           original, he used a real human newborn and real animals.

____ 16. After the Sultan interviewed Francis, he told his Moslem
           followers: "This Christian is unlike any I ever met -- he is
           a man of peace."

____ 17. The only gift that Francis would accept from the Sultan was
           an ivory horn used to call Moslems to prayer. For the rest
           of his life, he began his preaching by blowing this horn.

____ 18. During his later years, Francis had control of his
           organizations taken away from him by the church hierarchy.

____ 19. When he received the stigmata, Francis had a vision of a
           crucified seraph (the highest kind of angel). He knew this
           was unorthodox, and his followers usually say instead that
           he saw an angel carrying a crucifix.

____ 20. Francis became blind, probably from a chlamydia infection

____ 21. Francis wrote the words to the hymn, "All Creatures of Our
           God and King" -- in the 1982 Hymnal's version, they are only
           slightly modified.

____ 22. Before his death, Francis apologized to his body for
           treating it harshly.

____ 23. Francis's dying request was to be buried under the town
           gallows. Four years later this was done -- the gallows were
           torn down, and "St. Francis's Basilica" was built on the

____ 24. The amount of money collected and spent for the basilica
           where poor Francis was buried became a scandal, and the
           brother who built it was vilified without mercy.

____ 25. Francis's body was so well-hidden from relic-seekers that
           for centuries its exact location was unknown -- it was
           rediscovered in 1818.

____ 26. In the years after Francis, the history of the orders is
           disfigured by continual infighting. Franciscans of
           different persuasions persecuted one another.

____ 27. Los Angeles (California) is named for Francis's favorite
           church building.

____ 28. The "Prayer of St. Francis" ("LORD, make me an instrument of
           Your peace, etc.") was written in the nineteenth century by
           an unknown author.

____ 29. Just before he died, the Communist leader Nikolai Lenin
           called on St. Francis.

____ 30. In 1979, the Bishop of Rome declared Francis the patron
           saint of ecology.

____ 31. Today there are Franciscans in the Roman Catholic,
           Lutheran, and Anglican communions. The major Anglican
           branch, called the Society of St. Francis, is dedicated
           primarily to helping the very poor and the outcast.

All "True" except: #6 (Francis eventually did become a deacon), and
                 #10 (Francis was not a vegetarian).

                     COLLECT FOR FRANCIS OF ASSISI
                               October 4

           Most high, omnipotent, good Lord, grant your people grace to
renounce gladly the vanities of this world; that, following the way of
blessed Francis, we may for love of you delight in your whole creation
with perfectness of joy; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and
reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. AMEN.


Psalm 148:7-14 (Praise Him, sun and moon; praise Him, all you shining
Galatians 6:14-18 (I bear the marks of Jesus branded on my body.)
Matthew 11:25-30 ("I thank thee, Father ... for hiding these things
from the learned and wise, and for revealing them to the simple.")

                     EVE OF FRANCIS OF ASSISI

Psalm 111 (I will give thanks to the LORD with my whole heart.)
Psalm 147 (The LORD lifts up the lowly.)
Genesis 1:24-31 (God said, "Let the earth bring forth living
Luke 12:22-34 ("Sell your possessions and give in charity.")


Psalm 1 (The LORD knows the way of the righteous.)
Psalm 8 (What is man that You should be mindful of him?)
Isaiah 52:7-15 (How lovely on the mountains are the feet of the
I Corinthians 1:17-31 (Christ did not send me to baptize, but to
proclaim the Gospel.)


Psalm 16 (Indeed, I have a goodly heritage.)
Matthew 6:19-21 ("Do not store up for yourselves treasure on earth.")


Psalm 117 (Praise the LORD, all you nations; laud Him, all you
Psalm 146 (The LORD sets the prisoners free; the LORD opens the eyes of
the blind.)
Isaiah 55:1-13 (I made him a witness to all races.)
Matthew 10:5-22 ("Provide no gold, silver, or copper to fill your

                           September 17
                     (Roman Rite, not in BCP)

           Lord Jesus Christ, when the world was growing cold you
raised up blessed Francis, bearing in his body the marks of your
passion, to inflame our hearts with the fire of your love: Mercifully
grant us, your people, true penitence and grace to bear your cross for
love of you, who lives and reigns with the Father and the Holy Spirit,
one God, for ever and ever. AMEN.


Psalm 37:24-33 (I have been young and now I am old.)
Exodus 24:12-18 ("Come up to Me upon the mountain.")
Galatians 6:14-18 (I bear the marks of Jesus branded on my body.)
Matthew 16:24-27 ("He must take up his cross and follow Me.")


Psalm 21 (You have given him his heart's desire.)
Psalm 92 (They shall still bear fruit in old age.)
Ecclesiasticus 39:5-11 (The nations will talk of his wisdom.)
Luke 10:1-16 ("I am sending you like lambs among wolves. Carry no
purse or pack, and travel barefoot.")


Psalm 63 (O God, You are my God; eagerly I seek You; my soul thirsts
for You.)
Psalm 149 (Hallelujah! Sing to the LORD a new song.)
Exodus 24:12-18 ("Come up to Me upon the mountain.")
Matthew 5:1-12 ([Jesus] went up the hill.... "How blessed are those
whose hearts are pure; they shall see God.")


Psalm 34 (Look upon Him and be radiant.... Many are the troubles of the
righteous, but the LORD will deliver him out of them all.)
Romans 6:4-6 (For if we have become incorporate with Him in a death
like His, we shall also be one with Him in a resurrection like His.)


Psalm 15 (Who may abide upon Your holy hill? Whoever leads a blameless
Psalm 112 (Light shines in the darkness for the upright.)
Isaiah 6:1-8 (About Him were attendant seraphim, and each had six
John 12:20-41 (Isaiah ... saw His glory and spoke about Him.)

                           Francis of Assisi

You are Holy, Lord, the only God,
           and your deeds are wonderful.

You are strong.
           You are great.
           You are the Most High,
           You are Almighty.
           You, Holy Father, are
           King of Heaven and earth.

You are Three and One,
           Lord God, all Good.
           You are good, all Good, supreme Good,
           Lord God, living and true.

You are love,
           You are wisdom,
           You are humility,
           You are endurance.
           You are rest,
           You are peace.
           You are joy and gladness.
           You are justice and moderation.
           You are all our riches,
           And you suffice for us.

You are beauty,
           You are gentleness.
           You are our protector,
           You are our guardian and defender.
           You are courage.
           You are our haven and our hope.

You are our faith,
           Our great consolation.
           You are our eternal life,
           Great and wonderful Lord,
           God almighty,
           Merciful savior.


           Great and glorious God, and you, Lord Jesus, I pray you,
           shed abroad your light in the darkness of my mind. Be found
           by me, Lord, so that in all things I may act only in
           accordance with your holy will.


           Let us bless our Lord and God, living and true; to Him we
           must attribute all praise, glory, honor, blessing, and every
           good forever. Amen.

                     Francis of Assisi (adapted)

All creatures of our God and King,
Lift up your voices, let us sing
           Alleluia, Alleluia!
Bright burning sun with golden beams,
Pale silver moon that gently gleams,
           O praise him, O praise him, Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia!

Great rushing winds and breezes soft,
You clouds that ride the heavens aloft,
           O praise him, Alleluia!
Fair rising morn, with praise rejoice,
Stars nightly shining, find a voice,
           O praise him, O praise him, Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia!

Swift flowing water, pure and clear,
Make music for your Lord to hear,
     Alleluia, alleluia!
Fire, so intense and fiercely bright,
You give to us both warmth and light,
     O praise him, O praise him, Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia!

Dear mother earth, you day by day
Unfold your blessings on our way,
           O praise him, Alleluia!
All flowers and fruits that in you grow,
Let them his glory also show,
           O praise him, O praise him, Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia!

All you with mercy in your heart,
Forgiving others, take your part,
           O sing now: Alleluia!
All you that pain and sorrow bear,
Praise God, and cast on him your care:
           O praise him, O praise him, Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia!

And even you, most gentle death,
Waiting to hush our final breath,
           O praise him, Alleluia!
Happy are they who do God's will,
And follow his commandments still:
           O praise him, O praise him, Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia!

All creatures of our God and King,
Lift up your voices, let us sing;
           Alleluia, Alleluia!
Let all things their creator bless,
And worship him in humbleness,
           O praise him, O praise him, Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia!

                     THE CAROL OF ST. FRANCIS

The first good joy that Francis had, it was the gift of birth,
To drink the blessed cup of life, of beauty and of mirth.
Of beauty and of mirth, O Lord, then happy we may be,
Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost for all eternity.

The next good joy that Francis had, it was to give up all,
To hear our good Lord, Jesus Christ, and follow at His call.
To follow at His call, O Lord, then happy we may be,
Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost for all eternity.

The third good joy that Francis had, it was to beg his bread,
To have, like Jesus Christ our Lord, no place to lay his head.
No place to lay his head, O Lord, then happy we may be,
Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost for all eternity.

The fourth good joy that Francis had, it was God's praise to sing,
To bid all creatures everywhere give thanks in everything.
Give thanks in everything, O Lord, then happy we may be,
Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost for all eternity.

The fifth good joy that Francis had, it was to clothe St. Clare,
To see her wooed by Jesus Christ, her poverty to share.
Her poverty to share, O Lord, then happy we may be,
Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost for all eternity.

The sixth good joy that Francis had, it was to suffer pain,
To find in Jesus Christ our Lord that all our loss is gain.
That all our loss is gain, O Lord, then happy we may be,
Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost for all eternity.

The last good joy that Francis had, it was to yield his breath,
To lie upon our mother, Earth, and welcome Sister Death,
To welcome Sister Death, O Lord, then happy we may be,
Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost for all eternity.

                           New English Bible

Always treat others as you would like them to treat you (Matthew 7:12).

Among you, whoever wants to be great must be your servant, and whoever
wants to be first must be the willing slave of all (Matthew 20:26).

When you go into a house, let your first words be, "Peace to this
house" (Luke 10:5).

No one is good except God alone (Luke 18:19).

God is spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and in
truth (John 4:24).

The spirit alone gives life; the flesh is of no avail; the words I have
spoken to you are both spirit and life (John 6:63).

The written law condemns to death, but the Spirit gives life
(II Corinthians 3:6).

For you know how generous our Lord Jesus Christ has been: he was rich,
yet for your sake he became poor, so that through his poverty you might
become rich (II Corinthians 8:9).

Dear friends, I beg you, as aliens in a foreign land, to abstain from
the lusts of the flesh that are at war with the soul (I Peter 2:11).

Submit yourselves to every human institution for the sake of the Lord
(I Peter 2:13).

Christ suffered on your behalf, and thereby left you an example; it is
for you to follow in His steps (I Peter 2:21).

                     Adapted from William James's
                 Varieties of Religious Experience

           Some people are distinguished by a group of character traits
           that, for lack of a better word, may be called
           "saintliness". These traits are totally un-denominational.
           In most cases, all eight of these traits are present.

(1)       Saintly people have a very clear sense of the reality of,
           and their own friendly relationship with, God. While they
           stand in awe of Him, and may be very much afraid of Him,
           they appear certain of His benevolence.

                NOTE: Beyond this, saintly people may hold to elaborate
                (but seldom original) theologies, or may repeat the
                catechism, or seem to hold no doctrines at all.

                NOTE: In today's world, Marxism produces occasional
                saintly atheists who otherwise conform to the familiar
                model. These people are certain of the correctness of
                their beliefs, and have overwhelming faith in the
                coming world revolution.

(2)       As a result of their confidence in God, saintly people are
           sublimely happy, despite their great difficulties living in
           the familiar world.

(3)       Saintly people are ascetics. They typically discard what
           they perceive as luxuries and conveniences, and prefer to
           live as simply as possible.

(4)       Saintly people exhibit strength of soul, and endure physical
           and mental hardship with apparent ease.

(5)       Saintly people exhibit genuine purity. Whether married or
           single, they are chaste in word and deed.

(6)       Saintly people are remarkable for their charity. They
           desire to help everyone, especially those they perceive as
           most unfortunate. They seldom quarrel (except for some who
           fight vehemently with each other over theology).

(7)       Saintly people characteristically do not question
           authority. They are loyal to the "idols of the tribe", or
           the particular denomination which they associate with their
           religious experience, no matter how preposterous these
           claims may be. Saintly people do not challenge their
           "superiors", and are easily manipulated by them.
           Governments also manipulate them. For most of us, this is
           the principal drawback of the "saintly" character.

(8)       The experience of "saintliness" is not inborn, but is
           acquired at some time during the course of life, either
           abruptly or over the course of years. Recipients say it is
           a mysterious gift.

NOTE: For orthodox Christians (including Episcopalians), the group of
saintly character traits is not the invariable result of salvation, and
they are not necessary (or even always desirable) during our lives on

NOTE: "Saint" is also generic term for all of us saved sinners, and is
used especially for outstanding Christians of the past.

                                               -- Ed Friedlander

           From "World Apostolate": Francis of Assisi
                          Professor Ray Petry
                         Duke University, 1941

           One emerges from a study of Francis's apostolate with
certain definite convictions as to its limitation and failure. With
all of his charm and unselfishness, Francis must, nonetheless, be
appreciated as a man of passionate impulses, sustained, often illogical
conclusions, and simple, unsophisticated mentality. The same ideal
which gave him charm and magnetism also filled him with fanciful
notions and fatuous obsessions.

           Francis should, of course, be judged in the light of his own
day with its characteristic extremes of temperament and action. His
career, however, was filled with inconsistencies, affronts to purely
rational processes, and naive attachment to absolute ideals, sufficient
to stir the resentment as well as the admiration of any age. If it is
unjust to evaluate his life and thought according to modern standards
of judgment, it is likewise shallow to invest him with a halo of

           The extremes of self-depreciation, bodily abuse, and
neurotic seizure to which Francis was addicted gave an unwholesome
atmosphere to much of his poverty observance. The lengths to which he
went in the attainment of abject humility may be seen from his
association with lepers whose putrefying sores he did not hesitate to
kiss. His pride in the suspension of critical faculties was a tribute
to his thoroughgoing devotion to poverty and an evidence of his
suspicion of things intellectual. Virtual ignorance was not too high a
price for him to exact of the purchasers of poverty. There are times
when his infatuation with the ideal seems wholly severed from any
thought of its practical application to normal living.

           Francis must be accorded full honors for having divested
himself of all proprietary ambitions. His ideal in its pristine
absolutism, however, must be evaluated as an uncompromising, if
inspiring, discipline realizable by a very few people in any place or
time. One may sincerely admire Francis' attempt to place the regard
for spiritual values above the consideration for material
acquirements. Criticism must be leveled at his failure to make his
ideal accessible to the men in whom he had aroused a longing for the
power which attends renunciation. The transformation of that ideal
within the Franciscan Order was not the product of a betrayal by his
followers; it was the natural consequence of applying to complex, group
life an ideal evolved for his own individual needs, and impossible of
success in any society organized on a proprietary basis.

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